Table of Contents

## Operators in Python

Operator is a symbol used in various computations performed on operands.

For example:** >>>20+3 **

here 20 and 3 are operands and ‘+’ is operator.

### Types of Operators in Python

Depending upon the number of operands and required computations ,operators are divided in following major types:**1. Arithmetic Operator ****2. Assignment Operator ****3. Comparison/Relational Operator ****4. Bit-wise Operator ****5. Logical Operator ****6. Membership Operator ****7. Identity Operator **

#### Arithmetic Operator

Arithmetic operators are used for mathematical calculations like addition, subtraction, modulus, division etc.

Operator | Description | Examples |
---|---|---|

+ | It adds value on either sides of operator or can be used as unary operatotr | a=8 b=2 a+b=10 |

- | It subtracts value of right operand from left operand or it can be used as unary minus | a=8 b=2 a-b=6 |

* | Multiplication of two operands | a=8 b=2 a*b=16 |

/ | Divides left operand with right operand | a=8 b=2 a/b=4.0 |

// (Floor operator) | This is used to carry out floor division ie. removes decimal values | a=8 b=2 a//b=4 |

%(modulus) | It is used to find remainder of division | a=8 b=2 a%b=0 |

**(exponent) | It is used to perform exponential calculation on operators(ie, left operand raised to the power of right) | a=8 b=2 a**b=64 |

#### Assignment Operator

‘=’ sign is the basic assignment operator used to assign values to variables.

In addition ,Python has a set of short hand assignment operators as follows:

Operator | Description | Example | Equivalent to |
---|---|---|---|

= | It is used to assign values of right side operands to left side | >>>a=5 >>>a 5 >>>b='itvoyagers" >>>b itvoyagers | a=5 b="itvoyagers" |

+= | It is used to add values of right side operands to left side operand and the result is assigned to left operand | x+=4 | x=x+4 |

-= | It is used to subtract values of right side operands from left side operand and the result is assigned to left operand | x-=4 | x=x-4 |

*= | It is used to multiply values of both operands and the result is assigned to left operand | x*=4 | x=x*4 |

/= | It is used to divide values of left side operands by right side operand and the result is assigned to left operand | x/=4 | x=x/5 |

%= | It is used to divide values of left side operands by right side operand and the resulting reminder is assigned to left operand | x%=4 | x=x%4 |

**= | It performs Exponential calculation and result is assigned to left operand | x**=4 | x=x**4 |

//= | It is used to divide values of left side operands by right side operand and the result is assigned to left operand by removing decimal places | x//=4 | x=x//4 |

** Note : Other operator like logical , bit-wise etc can also be used as short hand assignment operator.**

#### Comparison/Relational Operator

It is used to compare operands.It is also called as Relational operator.

It returns Boolean values as output (True or False).

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

== (equal to) | This returns true if both operands are true otherwise false | >>> a=8 >>> b=2 >>> c=8 >>> a==b False >>> a==c True |

> (greater than) | This returns True if left operand is greater than right operand otherwise false | >>> a=8 >>> b=2 >>> c=1 >>> a>b True >>> c>b False |

< (less than) | This returns True if left operand is less than right operand otherwise false | >>> a=8 >>> b=2 >>> c=10 >>> a
False>>> a
True |

>= (greater than or equal to) | This returns True if left operand is greater than or equal to right operand otherwise false | >>> a=5 >>> b=3 >>> c=5 >>> a>=c True >>> b>=a False >>> a>=b True |

<= (less than or equal to) | This returns True if left operand is less than or equal to right operand otherwise false | >>> a=8 >>> b=2 >>> c=2 >>> a<=b False >>> b<=c True >>> c<=a True |

!= (not equal to) | This returns True when operands are not equal otherwise false | >>> a=8 >>> b=2 >>> c=8 >>> a!=b True >>> a!=c False |

#### Bitwise Operator

It is used to perform operation on bit.

It performs bit by bit operations.

Operator | Name | Description | Example |
---|---|---|---|

& | Binary AND | Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both the operands. i.e. returns 1 when both operands are 1 and 0 otherwise | >>> w=5 >>> a=6 >>> w & a 4 >>> bin(a) '0b110' >>> bin(w) '0b101' >>> bin(4) '0b100' >>> |

| | Binary OR | Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in any of the operands. i.e. returns 1 when either of operand is 1 and 0 otherwise | >>> w=5 >>> a=6 >>> w | a 7 >>> bin(a) '0b110' >>> bin(w) '0b101' >>> bin(7) '0b111' |

^ | Binary XOR | It copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not in both. i.e.returns 1 if one operand is 1 and other is 0 and 0 otherwise | >>> w=5 >>> a=6 >>> w ^ a 3 >>> bin(a) '0b110' >>> bin(w) '0b101' >>> bin(3) '0b11' |

~ | Binary Ones Complement | It is unary operator and has effect of flipping bits | >>> w=5 >>> bin(w) '0b101' >>> ~w -6 >>> bin(-6) '-0b110' |

<< | Binary Left Shift | The left operand value is moved to left by the number of bits specified in the right operand | >>> w=5 >>> w << 2 20 >>> bin(20) '0b10100' |

>> | Binary Right Shift | The left operand value is moved to right by the number of bits specified in the right operand | >>> w=5 >>> w >> 2 1 >>> bin(1) '0b1' |

#### Logical Operator

This operator is used to perform logical operations used logical and, or and not.These operators are case sensitive.

It returns Boolean values as output (True or False).

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

and | Logical AND returns True if both operands are True. | >>> p=100 >>> q=500 >>> r=700 >>> q>p and q>r False >>> q>p and r>q True |

or | Logical OR returns True if either of the operands is True. | >>> p=100 >>> q=500 >>> r=700 >>> p>q or q>r False >>> q>p or q>r True |

not | Logical NOT is used to reverse the state of operand. | >>> a='' >>> not a True >>> b=10 >>> not b False >>> not q>p False |

#### Membership Operator

This operator is used to check if given variable is a part of specified sequence or not.

This operator **(in and not in)** can be used with strings, lists etc

It returns Boolean values as output (True or False).

Operators | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

in | It returns True if it finds variable in specified sequence , False otherwise | >>> 'I' in 'INDIA' True >>> 'i' in 'INDIA' False |

not in | It returns True if it does not find variable in specified sequence, False otherwise | >>> 'V' not in 'ITVoyagers' False >>> 'v' not in 'ITVoyagers' True |

#### Identity Operator

This operator is used to compare memory location of two objects.**id()** is used to show memory location of any object.

This operator **(is and is not)** can be used compare memory location of two objects.

It returns Boolean values as output (True or False).

Operators | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

is | It returns True if the variable on both sides of operator are pointing to same object ,False otherwise | >>> f=88 >>> o=100 >>> g=88 >>> id(f) 1872877376 >>> id(g) 1872877376 >>> id(o) 1872877568 >>> f is o False >>> f is g True |

is not | It returns True if the variable on both sides of operator are pointing to different object ,False otherwise | >>> f=88 >>> o=100 >>> g=88 >>> id(f) 1872877376 >>> id(g) 1872877376 >>> id(o) 1872877568 >>> f is not o True >>> f is not g False |

**Note: **

Order of operations plays important role in python programming.

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